There is often confusion about the use of who and whom.
Who and whom are pronouns.

  • Who is a subject pronoun, in the same way as ‘he/she/they’.
  • Whom is an object pronoun, in the same way as ‘him/her/them’.

In the sentence “John loves Julie.” :

  • John is the subject of the verb ‘love’
  • Julie is the object of John’s affection.

Simple rule:
If you can substitute ‘I/he/she/we/they’, use ‘who‘.
If you can substitute ‘me/him/her/us/them’, use ‘whom‘.

SUBJECTVERBOBJECT
TomlovesJulie.
WholovesJulie?
Tomloveswhom?

SUBJECT:

  • WHO:

    We use ‘who‘ when it is the subject of a verb, the person or thing doing something.

    • Julie played tennis. Julie is the subject of the verb ‘to play’.
    • To find out the name of the player, we ask a question using ‘who‘.
      Who played tennis? Julie played tennis.
    • Who can also be used as the subject of a non-identifying clause:
      • There’s Mr. Jones who bought the house next door.
      • Mrs Brown who owns the red car lives across the road.

OBJECT:

  • WHOM:

    We can use ‘whom‘ as the object of a verb, but it is very formal and not often used in spoken English.

    • Formal English: Whom did you see?
    • Everyday English: Who did you see?
  • In formal English, whom is used directly after a preposition:
    • With whom did you play? To whom do you wish to speak?
  • In informal conversational English, it is more usual to ask :
    • Who did you play with?  / Who do you want to speak to?
  • Whom is always used when it is preceded by quantifiers such as all of, both of, few of, many of, several of, etc. For example:
    • He addressed the spectators, most of whom remained seated.
    • A tree fell on a group of tourists, several of whom were injured.